Spare the Rod resources | WVIA

Spare the Rod resources

Last Updated by APM Reports on

Main Story: Amid evidence zero tolerance doesn't work, schools reverse themselves

Discipline Disparities and Zero Tolerance

Key Data Highlights on Equity and Opportunity Gaps in our Nation's Public Schools

2016, U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights

The Punishment Gap: School Suspension and Racial Disparities in Achievement

Edward W. Morris and Brea L. Perry

January, 2016. Social Problems 63: 68-86.

How School Suspensions Push Black Students Behind

Alia Wong

February 2016, The Atlantic

The High Cost of Harsh Discipline and Its Disparate Impact

Russell W. Rumberger and Daniel J. Losen

June 2016, The Center for Civil Rights Remedies, UCLA

Seeding Change in School Discipline: The Move from Zero Tolerance to Support

Winter 2015-2016, American Educator, American Federation of Teachers

Disproportionate Impact of K-12 School Suspension and Expulsions on Black Students in Southern States

Edward J. Smith and Shaun R. Harper

2015, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education, University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education

Racial Disproportionality in School Discipline: Implicit Bias is Heavily Implicated

Thomas Rudd

February 2014, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity, The Ohio State University

A First Look: Key Highlights on Equity and Opportunity Gaps in Our Nation's Public Schools

2013-2014 Civil Rights Data Collection

2016, U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights

New and Developing Research on Disparities in Discipline

Russel J. Skiba, Mariella I. Arredondo and M. Karega Rausch

March 2014, The Discipline Disparities Research to Practice Collective

The Equity Project, Indiana University

Are Black Kids Worse? Myths and Facts about Racial Differences in Behavior

Russel J. Skiba and Natasha T. Williams

March 2014, The Equity Project at Indiana University

Out of School and Off Track: The Overuse of Suspensions in American Middle and High Schools

Daniel Losen and Tia Elena Martinez

April 8 2013, The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at UCLA's Civil Rights Project

The History of Zero Tolerance in American Public Schooling

Judith Kafka

2011, Palgrave Studies in Urban Education

Breaking Schools' Rules: A Statewide Study on How School Discipline Relates to Students' Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement

Tony Fabelo, Michael D. Thompson, Martha Plotkin, Dottie Carmichael, Miner P. Marchbanks III, Eric A. Booth

July 2011, Council of State Governments Justice Center, Public Policy Research Institute

Patterns of Exclusionary Discipline by School Typology, Ethnicity, and Their Interaction

Amity Noltemeyer and Caven S. McLoughlin

Summer 2010, Perspectives on Urban Education: 27-40

Suspended Education: Urban Middle Schools in Crisis

Daniel J. Losen and Russel J. Skiba

September, 2010, Civil Rights Project, UCLA

Are Zero Tolerance Policies Effective in the Schools? An Evidentiary Review and Recommendations

American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force

December, 2008, American Psychologist 63.9: 852-862.

Education on Lockdown: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track

2005, Advancement Project, Padres y Jóvenes Unidos, Southwest Youth Collaborative, Children and Family Justice Center of Northwestern University School of Law

The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment

Russel J. Skiba, Robert S, Michael, Abra Carroll Nardo and Reece L. Peterson

2002. The Urban Review 34.4: 317-342.

Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence: An Analysis of School Disciplinary Practice

Russel J. Skiba and Kimberly Knesting

Winter 2001, New Directions for Youth Development 92: 17-43.

School Discipline at a Crossroads: From Zero Tolerance to Early Response

Russel J. Skiba and Reece L. Peterson

Exceptional Children 66.3 (Spring 2000): 335-347.

School Suspensions: Are They Helping Children?

September, 1975. Children's Defense Fund of the Washington Research Project, Inc.

Restorative Justice

Restorative Justice in U.S. Schools: A Research Review

Trevor Fronius, Hannah Persson, Sarah Guckenburg, Nancy Hurley, Anthony Petrosino

2016, WestEd

Keeping Kids in School: Restorative Justice, Punitive Discipline, and the School to Prison Pipeline

Thalia González

April, 2012 Journal of Law and Education 41.2: 281-335

Restoring Justice: Community Organizaing to Transform School Discipline Policies

Thalia González

Winter, 2011, UC Davis Journal of Juvenile Law and Policy 15.1: 1-36.


Colorado Disciplinary Practices 2008-2010: Disciplinary Actions, Student Behaviors, Race and Gender

Ryan Pfleger and Kathryn Wiley

April 2012, National Education Policy Center

Lessons in Racial Justice and Movement Building: Dismantling the School-to-Prison-Pipeline in Colorado and Nationally

Padres y Jovenes Unidos and Advancement
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